Biofuels can be produced from oils, fats and sugars derived from plants and animals. There is no agricultural activity in Nunavut, therefore, plants such as canola and soybeans that are used to produce biofuels would have to be imported. Importing plants is not a viable renewable substitute for fossil fuels.
Biofuel programs using fish waste (offal) have demonstrated success in remote communities (e.g., in Alaska) and in the Energy Strategy the GN has expressed interest in exploring the possibility of developing similar programs in Nunavut. The Nunavut fishing industry processes Arctic char and some Greenland halibut. Fish are made commercially available through four fish processing plants. One plant also processes marine mammals (seals and whales). Only two of the four fish processing plants in Nunavut purchase whole fish (i.e., with guts intact) but do so only in the winter months. During the summer, purchased fish have been already gutted by the harvester. The fish by-products produced in fish processing plants are limited to mostly frames (which are supplied to local dog owners) and a small amount of offal (which is discarded).
To assess the development of biofuel as a renewable energy resource option in Nunavut, it would be important to conduct a fish and marine mammal offal inventory. However, there are concerns that the purchase of marine mammals for biofuel production could exceed the food price and thus could cause conflicts and impact food security.